The formation of a new individual from their parents is called reproduction. The formation of a new individual if only one parent is involved is called asexual reproduction.
Reproductions are of two types- sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction: The reproduction in which two parents of opposite mating types are involved.
Asexual reproduction: The reproduction in which only one parent is involved in the production of a new individual.
The different types of asexual reproduction are vegetative reproduction, budding, spore formation, regeneration, Fragmentation etc.
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction:
1. When numerous individuals are produced during asexual reproduction there will be a struggle for soil, nutrients and light which affects the health of the newly formed plants.
2. Asexual reproduction doesn't allow any type of genetic variation as there is only one parent is involved in it.
3. As only one parent is involved there is no recombination of genes in asexual reproduction. It is genetically static.
4. The newly formed individuals are exactly the same copy as that of their parents. So if there is any genetic defect in the parent, it will be transferred to the offspring
5. The whole population of the new individuals will be completely wiped out when an unfavorable condition exist.
6. As the newly produced individuals shows less genetic variety, there will be a lesser chance of survival in a changing environment.
7. As there is no fusion of gametes there is no variety in the offspring during asexual reproduction.
8. Reproduction leads to overcrowding and a struggle for existence.
9. Harmful mutations cannot be removed by asexual reproduction.