Decomposers is a component of an ecosystem composed mainly of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi etc. They are known as micro consumers or saprotrophs or osmotrophs.They act on dead bodies of plants and animals and are responsible for breaking down of complex materials of dead protoplasm into simpler ones. The substances liberated during the decomposition are released into the environment to be reused again by the producers.
The micro consumers decompose the complex dead bodies of plants and animals and convert them into simple forms. They play a vital role in the return of mineral elements into the medium. When temperature conditions are favorable, decomposition occurs more rapidly.70% of the earth’s surface is occupied by oceans. There are a large number of decomposers in oceans. The ocean is divided in to many zones based on the depth and the light availability .Two major divisions of the oceans are recognized-pelagic and benthic zones. The pelagic zones include the sunlit surface waters while the benthic zone includes the ocean floor. Different types of decomposers are found in different zones. Some of the decomposers in ocean include bacteria, fungi, Sea slugs, brittle star, hag fish, sea gulls, sea worms etc.
The decomposers break down the dead remains making it into nutrients for the ocean. If there are no decomposers, the producers won’t get any nutrients and hence they become extinct. When producers are not there, the primary consumers won’t get food and they become vanish. The secondary consumers in turn won’t get food and finally the whole organisms’ dies and thus the food chain become collapsed.