A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life which is able to carry out all the basic functions of life:
growth, metabolism and reproduction. Some simple organism consist of a single cell, while most plants
consist of many cells adapted to perform aa particularfunction.
1. A plant cell has a cellulosic cell wall.
2. The cell wall provides the plant cell with more definite and firm shape.
3. The cytoplasm is pushed towards the periphery and forms a thin lining against the cell wall.
4. The vacuoles are large and prominent; It may be one or two in number.
5. Plastids are generally present and they are of three types-Chloroplast, leucoplast and
Chromoplast.Chloroplast are involved in photosynthesis.
6. Centrosome is absent but two small clear areas called polar caps are present. These precipitate in cell
7. Several subunits of Golgi apparatus called dictyposomes are present.
8. The reserve food is stored in the form of starch.
9. There are no formations of asters during cell division. The spindle is therefore anastral.
10. Mitochondria are fewer in number,
11. Cristae are tubular.
12. Sodium chloride which is toxic to plants is absent in tissue fluid.
13. Glyoxysomes are present in plant cell.
14. The cytoplasm divides by cell plate formation.
15. Plant cells can synthesize all amino acids, coenzymes and vitamins.
16. Cell wall does not allow expansion of plant cells.
17. Contractile vacuoles are absent because the firm cell wall does not allow the expansion of plant cell
beyond certain limit.
18. The presence of crystals of mineral materials is a common feature.