Variation in a species

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“Variations” are the different types of characters observed in different species. It occurs due to the following,:
  • Selection
  • Recombination
  • Mutation
  • Migration
Speciation
  • Speciation is exemplified by “Galapagos Finches”
  • It occurs due to gradual and spontaneous mutations.
  • The variations are inherited by the progeny of finches.
  • The resulting change provides a “selective advantage” to the finches since they can procure their food maximally by using the bills.
  • By adapting to various “ecological niches” of the island its rate of reproduction increases leaving behind “fitter” offsprings.
This is an example of “microevolution” which happens in a small time scale. Thus, small heritable mutations resulting in variation, is responsible for “Organic Evolution”.

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